Reflections on Ebert, J. E. J, Gilbert D.T., Wilson T. D. (2009) Forecasting and Backcasting: Predicting the Impact of Events on the Future.

Some excerpts from the article (link):

“How do consumers predict their feelings following a future consumption event?”

“Forecasting, as an approach to predicting the hedonic impact of a future event, has been widely studied in the literature (Coughlan and Connolly 2001; Dunn, Wilson, and Gilbert 2003; Finkenauer et al. 2007; Gaunt, Sindic, and Leyens 2005; Gilbert et al. 1998, 2004; Kahneman and Snell 1992; Loewenstein and Frederick 1997; Mellers 2000; Read and Van Leeuwen 1998; Snell, Gibbs, and Varey 1995; Wilson et al. 2000, 2005).”

“A second approach that we propose for predicting the hedonic impact of a future event—backcasting—is one that has received much less attention. In backcasting, the consumer first considers how she is likely to feel in a future period (“I’m going to be happy in a few days because my birthday is coming up”) and then considers the effects of the prior impacting event and the passage of time  (“And if the Red Sox lose today it won’t change that much”).”

“Why Do Backcasters Predict a Greater Impact of Events on Their Future Feelings than Forecasters? Backcasters make more extreme hedonic predictions primarily because they consider the impacting information to a greater extent than forecasters do.”

“Similarly, people may use backcasting and forecasting when regulating their feelings in future and current periods, respectively. Consumers frequently use consumption events to regulate their mood—for example, buying gifts for themselves or listening to music to improve their mood (Chen, Zhou, and Bryant 2007; Gould 1997). Research shows that mood regulation can be anticipatory, used to cause a particular mood for a particular situation, or reactive, used to alter an existing mood (Erber, Wegner, and Therriault 1996; Gross 1998).”

KC’s reflections:

I hope to have an insight into student’s behaviour (in T&L) and how I can draw connections using these predictive methods of inquiry. There appears to be a conscious effort of students signing up and attending tutorials but no proper outcomes documented from them. I hope to use these predictive methods to shape the mindset of students prior to attending a tutorial as there are always expectations that attending one of these would “solve all my technical issues within my projects.”

Reflections on Quista, J, Vergragt, P (2006) Past and future of backcasting: The shift to stakeholder participation and a proposal for a methodological framework.

Some excerpts from the article (link)

“The origin of backcasting is in the 1970s, when Lovins [6,7]  proposed backcasting as an alternative planning technique for electricity supply and demand.”

“The focus of energy backcasting was on analysis and deriving policy goals, while the backcasts  of different alternative energy futures were also meant to reveal the relative implications of different policy goals.”

“Backcasting for sustainability.”

“The shift to participatory backcasting using broad stakeholder involvement started in the Netherlands in the early 1990s. Participatory backcasting has been applied in the Netherlands since then, first at the governmental programme for sustainable technology development (STD) that ran from 1993–2001 [3,27]  and in its EU funded spin-off, the research project ‘SusHouse’ that ran from 1998 to 2000 [4,5] .”








“ It has also been found that backcasting can refer to a concept or philosophy, a study, an approach, a methodology, an interaction process among participating stakeholders, an analysis (sometimes referred to as a backcast ) or the specific step of looking back from the desired future within the overall approach. This means that backcasting is used to refer to the conceptual or holistic level, the level of social or multi-actor processes, the level of overall approaches and methodologies containing of multiple steps, methods and instruments and to the level of specific steps, methods or instruments within such an overall approach or overall methodology. However, it also shows that backcasting is slightly differently defined in different places and reports, which might be confusing in the present debate and when comparing different backcasting studies.”

KC’s reflections:

As my SIP is a small scale inquiry, I have stayed away from the overarching approach to back casting’s methodologies and focused on how I can use the method by looking at STD’s approach. In my SIP, I have focused on Short Term actions. i.e. tutorial forms, giving advance notices and developing self-reliant mindsets.

I have chosen this article from Delft University of Technology as I see my area (Technical Studies) of teaching bearing a close resemblance to what I see in Delft, which is described on their MOOCs. (link) Although it is an engineering school, I should also emphasise that I would look at this article more from a process overview instead of a technical perspective.

Reflections on Cosco N.G., Moore R.C., Islam M.Z. (2008) Behaviour Mapping: A Method for Linking Preschool Physical Activity and Outdoor Design.

Some excerpts from the article (link)

“Behaviour mapping approach”

“Behaviour mapping is an unobtrusive, direct observational method for recording the location of subjects and measuring their activity levels simultaneously. Results help researchers understand the behavioural dynamics of the built environment.”

“Behaviour mapping is based on the concepts of behaviour setting  (3,18) and affordance  (14,15). Behaviour settings are ecological units, where the physical environment and the behaviour are indissolubly connected. Affordances are the perceived properties of the physical environment that support the individual’s actions (15)”

“Behaviour mapping: potential and future directions”

“Behaviour mapping could also address the potential differences in the use of behaviour settings by children from different ethnicity or racial backgrounds and the influence of teacher–child interaction, among other social factors.”

KC’s reflection: I was hoping to use this at start of the inquiry to test whether the location is an important consideration when you participate in a tutorial. Would the location and ambience even stop/encourage you from signing up for a tutorial ?

Although , the article is focused primarily on preschool activity and environments, I would like to use its underlying principles of behaviour mapping in my inquiry. The next step would be to probe into this using a question in the survey.

Reflections on Ziniel, Curtis E. and Ghalib, Asad K. (2016) Student-led tutorials and their implications on learning and teaching. Liverpool Hope Business School, Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Link to text here

(This is presented at Mixed Methods International Research Association Conference (2016), 4th August 2016, Durham University.)


This study uses sequential mixed methods to conduct a study on how tutorials can be part of teaching & learning for 1st and 2nd year students. In the first instance, students can mistake tutorials for mini lectures and this can confuse the main purpose of a tutorial. Here, at these tutorials, students are expected/ supposed to lead discussion. Students start as a pair and then subsequently speak on their own. Students have to come prepared with questions for discussion. The study reveals that first year students were appreciative of this model and allows them to build confidence speaking in front of the class. First year students are also much more receptive to such teaching than second year.

Tutorial attendance and active participation.

There are also discussions on how the awarding of marks for attending a tutorial can be an incentive and spur engagement. IMO, this could also challenge the learning behaviours of a  student where they will spend more time on this preparation instead of focusing on discipline specific projects/tasks. I think if this is a final year student attending this tutorial, this could be beneficial for their final outcome of their project as preparation could help them position their work and rationale.

How it is conducted.

This studies research into practicalities and how it is carried out starting with a questionnaire, then a focus group.

“The survey instrument was administered towards the end of the academic session in the form of printed questionnaires. These were distributed and collected during tutorial sessions by the relevant tutors. Complete confidentiality and anonymity were guaranteed as no student details were captured. Moreover, the tutor left the room to return towards the end to offer privacy………For our study, we used the structured questionnaires as instruments to capture the quantitative element, whereas the focus groups led to the generation of qualitative data. “

The focus group reveals that tutor ’s subjectivity and how some tutors may mark differently than others. This is true when it comes to my  own personal experiences as some  students tend to stay away from certain tutors when they tend to have less expertise in specific topics/areas of studies. However, in this study, students acknowledge some differences in tutor marking is inevitable.

Reflections on Topping, K.J., (1996), The effectiveness of peer tutoring in further and higher education: A typology and review of the literature Higher education Vol. 32 no. 3 , 321-345

link to text here

Here, peer tutoring  is seen as a form of cognitive interaction with a more experienced peer (Vygotsky 1978), leading the task or discussion .

Barbara Rogoff (1990) also talked about Apprenticeship in thinking. (EXPAND)

There are also discussions about how student can learn by reading the material provided by tutor and teaching it to a peer (as documented by a study (Antis, 1983) provides high order conceptual understanding.

Reflections on Marton, F., Hounsell, D. & Entwistle, N., (eds.) …  (1984), Chapter 12: Enabling and Shaping Understanding through Tutorials (by Charles Anderson).

link to text here

This text focuses on the nature and quality of student experience of a tutor led discussion group. Certain parts of the text also bring my attention to tutorials being a common staple of the British higher education, so how do we make it inclusive , especially for international students.

After reading this, one of the question that I have is the role of tutors in a tutorials?  How do I enable tutorials to become active learning and encourage students to start to think critically. Perhaps, the ultimate aim for a tutorial IMO would be to encourage independence and gain confidence as you progress.

Work by Ambercrombie (1974 and 1960,p70) has set the precedence of how tutorials encourage spontaneous expressions by students  where they become a climate where all participants can listen and speak  (Nias, 1993, p117)

One of the key aspects I uncover is that in tutorials, teachers are supposed to “teach” which makes me slightly nervous. Students look upon you for expert knowledge in in the discipline of Product Design. Students prefer tutors whom are Empathetic with their problems, not someone who is too “clever” to care about students work.

Tutors inspires and constructs and build upon students problems, allowing the student to think independently.

To conclude, I really liked what Charles wrote here:

“While some students stressed the value of tutors insisting on the very clear and precise formulation of statements, including the exact use of technical terms, others commented favourably on tutors who widened out and enriched discussion, introducing new aspects to debate and encouraging a more differentiated view of topics which had surfaced in discussion.”

Reflections on the 1st Week of Self-Initiated Project (26th September)

I started to think about this small scale inquiry which can be relevant to my job i.e. teaching product design undergraduate students. There is a lot of focus on my practice and my chosen project which is a question about how tutorials can be effective.

During this session, I had a discussion with Sophie, Makbule and Josef. (Makbule and Josef has been in my same T&L module so we sort of know each other well and I also have peer-observed Josef and vice versa) Our discussion touches on the possible methods of learning, knowing yourself and your student and also how our disciplines teach students (in general) I have the largest teaching cohort and I see this as quite different from theirs.

The image above captures my research problem and how my peers contributed to the discussion. (This act of “crowdfunding” my work is very enriching and I could use these method in my teaching too!) There were comments about who/what has written texts on tutorials and YES, I did EXACTLY this prior to this session.

1.  Ziniel, Curtis E. & Ghalib, Asad K. (2016) Student-led tutorials and their implications on learning and teaching. In: Mixed Methods International Research Association Conference (2016), 4th August 2016, Durham University. 

2.  Dienes, Z. (1997) Student lead tutorials: a discussion paper. Falmer: School of Experimental Psychology, University of Sussex

3.  Collier, K.G. (1983) Management of peer group learning. Syndicate methods in HE, Guildford Society for Research in Higher Education.

4. Marton, F., Hounsell, D. & Entwistle, N., (eds.) …  (1984), Chapter 12: Enabling and Shaping Understanding through Tutorials (Charles Anderson).

5. Topping K.J., (1996), The effectiveness of Peer Tutoring in Further and Higher Education: A typology and review of the literature Higher Education 32, 321-345

(Some of these texts are old and I have actively searched for recent ones to see if I can unpack more interesting readings.)

I see the mass intellectuality as a main issue in my pursuit of this topic. Since I do not necessary have a good research question, I have started to generate a few, which I have listed below (my comments in brackets):

1. How tutorials can inspire creative Product Design education?

2. What happens after a lecture? Answer: tutorial?

3. Why tutorials is an effective learning method?

4. Tutorials in mass education(intellectuality)?

5. Can learning be achieved through tutorials?

6. In what ways can tutorials be a way to learn in creative education?

7. Exploring methods to enable tutorials to be part of a student’s learning process.

8. How can the use of tutorials enhance the students’s learnings?

9. What is a tutor’s role in tutorials?

10. Understanding tutorials in creative education. (too broad)

The intent is to reinforce what I am thinking: about tutorials, student-centred and what Brian Eno (via our tutor) said about knowledge acquisition through Shared gENIUS (SCENIUS). The comments written in red about what effective and actionable means does make me stop and think what I want to enquire about tutorials.

My Problem Based Learning group consists of 3 students. We started to concept map our projects individually and mine looks like this below:

The mapping allows me to think about a tutor being a facilitator in a tutorial and also what it means to be inclusive in a tutorial. I understood some international students is not familiar with this learning method. On another note, I am intrigued by student-led tutorials and I have been reading more about this method.

The keywords I have used to search for articles are:

1. Peer Driven Tutorials

2. Tutorial Policy

3. Documentation in Tutorial sessions

4. Small group tutorials

5. Discussion Groups

6. Constructive tutorials